Welcome!
The Foundations, ("Circle of Light", "Esoterism Studies", "Esoterism Academy", "Religious Philosophy Foundation"), are Spiritual Organizations, which have a purely educational character.
The Publications have a purely practical nature, to illuminate the phenomenon of existence. We try to look at our subjects from various, different, perspectives, precisely to illuminate as best we can the object of our contemplation. Some repetitions are done not out of blindness but for purely educational purposes.
We believe that we deal with all traditions, religions, theories and views, objectively. The reference to the various traditions is made to show that ultimately the Truth is one, regardless of its various historical expressions.
Our purpose is not only to give something from our understanding, but also to share the knowledge with everyone. If you have any question, suggestion, or opinion, about the topics published, we will be happy to share them with us.

Welcome to the Land of Truth (whose deepest and truest expression is the Silence that Rises in Understanding).

Thank you for being here!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Esoterism Studies

Esoterism Studies
* NEW BOOK
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Translate

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ARTICLE

ARTICLE
Monday, 17 June, 2024

Friday, August 11, 2023

Samkhya Yoga


 

Samkhya Yoga

Samkhya Yoga is one of the six Āstika schools of Hindu philosophy. It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it is a dualistic philosophy that describes the universe as consisting of two realities: puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). These two realities coexist and work together, but are fundamentally distinct.

The term "Samkhya" is derived from the Sanskrit word "samkhya" which means "number", "count", "measure", or "calculation", and this school of philosophy is known for its systematic enumeration and logical examination of the various components of reality.

Here are the key elements of Samkhya philosophy:

1. Dualism: The core belief of Samkhya is that there are two fundamental realities in the universe, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). Puruṣa is the eternal, unchangeable, impassive observer, while prakṛti is the source of all material existence, including the mind and senses.

2. Prakṛti and its Evolutes: Prakṛti evolves into various forms and functions. The first evolute of prakṛti is the Mahat or Buddhi (intelligence), which is followed by Ahamkara (ego), Manas (mind), the five buddhindriyas (sensory organs), the five karmendriyas (action organs), and the five tanmatras (subtle elements), which finally manifest as the five mahabhutas (gross physical elements).

3. The Goal of Liberation: Samkhya philosophy posits that the ultimate goal of life is to achieve liberation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death. This is achieved when the puruṣa realizes its distinction from prakṛti and ceases to identify with the material world.

4. Knowledge as the Means of Liberation: Knowledge is considered the only means to achieve liberation in Samkhya philosophy. By understanding the true nature of puruṣa and prakṛti, one can break free from the cycle of birth and death.

5. Atheistic Viewpoint: Unlike many other Hindu philosophies, Samkhya does not assert the existence of God. It is essentially atheistic, with the focus being on the individual's realization of their own spiritual nature.

.

While the philosophy of Samkhya is closely related to the practice of Yoga, they are distinct. Yoga, as described in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, incorporates the philosophical insights of Samkhya but adds a practical path of meditation and ethical conduct to achieve liberation. The two schools have been so closely associated historically that they are often considered together as Samkhya-Yoga.

...

Purusha

Prakriti

Samsara

Ashtanga Yoga

Kaivalya

 

Purusha

Purusha Is Eternal Reality, without attributes. Pure Consciousness, Autonomous, Free and at the same time Unlimited Perception that grasps anything "objective", without actually being bound. The Purusha is characterized in the scriptures as Nirgunatvat (without attributes), Nirsidharma (without “intelligence”), Asang (unbound, free), drast (“viewer”, absolute consciousness, vision par excellence).

Prakriti is the Energy underlying all phenomena, which transforms into intelligence, energy, matter.

Purusha, without qualities, unlimited perception, is connected with Prakriti, perceives Prakriti and its transformations. At the same time Prakriti under the influence of Purusha is transformed producing the world of phenomena. This relationship, correspondence is called yogayata

 

Prakriti

Before creation, Purusha and Prakriti are independent. Prakriti is at rest as the forces governing it (gunas) are in perfect balance. It is an Energy without properties, "formless". This state is called avyakta. At the beginning of creation (at its inception) the Purusha that "connects" with Prakriti perceives Prakriti in this state of equilibrium, as energy without qualities while Prakriti "reflects" exactly the Purusha. Thus, Energy undergoes its first transformation, becoming Mahat, pure intelligence. This "movement" is called vyakta. From this transformation will progressively arise all states of energy, forms of becoming, creation.

Already, from the moment Prakriti passed from the original state of perfect balance (the state where it was without qualities) to the state of intelligence, the forces within Prakriti were disturbed and the Energy began to transform. It entered a flow of evolution, of activating the potentials that already existed in Prakriti, in a phase in which it is now being pushed to develop all that exists in potential. This evolution of Prakriti is called parinama.

In this phase of evolution, there is no longer a balance of forces within Prakriti. Some moments, dynamisms, forces appear, which prompt movement, transformation. The transformation of Prakriti takes place according to these moments, forces. The principles of this development are called gunas and they are:

a) sattva, the principle of balance that manifests itself (in whatever cosmic field or level we refer to) as purity, tranquility (pure intelligence, pure sensation, will, pure action of matter).

b) rajas, the principle of action (disturbance of balance) which manifests itself as potency, activity (activity of intelligence, activity of sense, activity of matter).

c) tamas, the principle of static inertia (resistance to action) that manifests as slowing down and dissolution (mental vagueness, sensual confusion).

The three gunas appear as a "spectrum of activity" in which we distinguish three sub-regions. The transition from one area of the activity spectrum to another is gradual and smooth. When sattva increases excessively (upward) we move into a "superior" state. When tamas increases excessively (downward) we pass into a "lower quality" state. The state, which is a field of activity, a space of manifestation, of existence is called Vikara .

Thus, when within the Mahat ( vikara ) which is a homogeneous field, sattva predominates the Mahat "reflects" the Purusha as an indeterminate state without qualities. When rajas dominates, the perception of a universal consciousness is created. When tamas prevails then the perception of a wider consciousness that spreads throughout space prevails.

When within the Mahat the tamas increases excessively (downward) we pass into a qualitatively inferior state which is the sphere of individualization of the Mahat, the Andahkarana (vicara), which is a field of multiplicity. Depending on which force (sattva, rajas, tamas) prevails, the functions of Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas are manifested (the transformations of intelligence are called vrittis and depending on which force from sattva, rajas, tamas, predominates is correspondingly prakhya pravritti, stitti).

When inside the Andahkarana vicariously tamas increases excessively (downwards) we pass into the realm of Prana (etheric energy). Depending on which force (sattva, rajas, tamas) prevails the jnana functions are manifested intrigue, karma intrigue and tanmatra.

When in Prana vicariously tamas increases excessively (downward) we pass into the realm of Akasa , the material universe. Depending on which force (sattva, rajas, tamas) prevails, the elements Akasa (ether, space, space), mahabuta (air, fire, water, earth) and the various material bodies are manifested.

Thus, Prakriti is transformed according to its impulses and all states, forms of becoming are produced. Various fields of manifestation called vicars are thus created. The entire creation is the product of an initial energy that progressively produces intelligence, force, matter. In the higher fields of activity there is no distinction between subject and object. In the lower fields of activity, however, there is a distinction of subject object. However, since in reality everything comes from one energy and is of the same texture, we should not be surprised by the fact that in the cosmology of Samkya Yoga, subjective and objective elements are mentioned without distinction (objective does not have the meaning of independent).

The Evolution of Prakriti (parinama) follows certain laws which lead through a definite path to a definite end. Creation is a cyclical phenomenon and ends after the passage of a huge period of time again in the restoration of the balance of forces within Prakriti and in the dissolution of all transformations of Prakriti, all forms of becoming. This state is known as Mahapralaya.

Samsara

Purusha Is Undifferentiated Reality, without attributes, Pure Consciousness. This is His Natural State. The State of Absolute Freedom, Isolation from everything else (Prakriti). This State is called Vidya.

When the Purusha "connects" with Prakriti he "observes" the cosmic energy and its transformations. At the same time Prakriti comes to life. As qualityless (formless) energy it reflects the Purusha and becomes intelligence. When the Purusha concentrates completely on Prakriti , when He gives His "whole attention" to it, it becomes pure receptivity, absorbed in the object, only the object exists. It is precisely because of this continued connection with the Purusha that Prakriti is impelled to a further movement and development. The state where the Purusha absorbed in the formations of Prakriti is called avidya.

Thus, the Purusha has the experience of Prakriti, its transformations. It forms the perception of an individual existence (asmita), an individual life and evolution. As long as the Purusha remains in the state of avidya and continues to observe, to be absorbed in Prakriti and its transformations and thereby "support" Prakriti and its transformations (which precisely because of this continued support transforms and produces new forms of becoming, new states, subjective and objective phenomena) there is still this individual existence within Prakriti, in its various fields. The Purusha observes and watches this individual existence in its course through evolution, through creation, through the various cosmic fields, from life to life, until it comes to realize that all these are only transformations of Prakriti something extraneous, so it ceases to be absorbed in all this he comes to His Real State. This path is called samsara (where only Prakriti transforms and passes from life to life) and Liberation, or Independence, is called Kaivalgya. Within "creation" everything evolves according to the law of karma, the law of universal causation. According to this law the path in evolution is determined by our own action. The present state depends on the past action, while the present action prepares the future existence. 

Ashtanga Yoga

Purusha Is Undifferentiated Reality, without attributes. As long as the Purusha concentrates on Prakriti and gives all His attention to the transformations, He is absorbed in individual existence, its functions (Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas), its energies (Prana), its states (Akasha, material body), the various secular fields. The Real State of the Purusha is the Undifferentiated state of Kaivalya (Independence, Isolation) and not its connection with Prakriti, His absorption in her transformations. In order for the Purusha to reach His Real State, in whatever cosmic field he may be at the present stage, he must cease to be absorbed in the transformations of Prakriti.

In the material world the Practice leading to Liberation is called Ashtanga Yoga and includes several stages. These stages are:

1) Kaivalya in the material realm, Isolation, cut off from prakriti in the material realm, from all transformation.

2) Asambrajnata Samadhi, Control of Mahat (three varieties of intelligence).

3) Three Varieties of Sambrajnata Samadi:

1) Asmitas Samadhi Control of Buddhi (Elimination of egoic intelligence, of transformations of consciousness).

2) Ananda Samadhi, Control of Ahamkara (Neutralization of mental processes, thinking, etc.).

3) Four varieties of Samadhi, nirvisara, savisara, nirvitarka, savitarka). Control of Manas (Elimination of perceptual processes through concentration on a single point).

4) Control of the Sense, through Pratyahara and Pranayama.

5) Control of the Body through Asana, Niyama (Conformations) and Yama (Renunciations), that is, through actions to be followed and actions to be rejected.

It is understood that depending on the evolution of individual existence the Purusha will start from the stage he is at the given moment. When Purusha attains Kaivalya (mukti) he is a jivan mukti (living liberated). He can use Prakriti, the transformations, without binding anymore.

 

Kaivalya

The Purusha, through the Practice of Yoga, transcends becoming in the material realm (in its various levels of manifestation, the material, the perceptual, the mental, the universal). By exercise it brings the chitta into a state of "amorphism" without transformations. And so, it ceases to be identified with the transformations of the chitta, since there are no more transformations. As the mental impressions that maintain the perception of an individual existence (in the material realm) also disappear, the Purusha is freed forever from "individual existence in the material realm". The main characteristic then of this state of Kaivalgia, is that the Purusha realizes the Real Being, the True Self, which is completely distinct from becoming in the material realm, ceases to be identified with any existence in the material realm. The Purusha now perceives its existence as Something Infinitely Wider than a material existence, than an existence limited to the limits of the material world. It has a perception of an existence in a space wider than the material realm. It is evident that in this State it is still attached to material existence (until the causes which produced it are exhausted) and can now use the lower transformations without being drawn into an identification and without attachment.

 

 


 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Our Prayer

Mystical Prayer for the Path of the Universal

 

O Infinite Source, Unseen and Unfathomable,

I bow before Your boundless presence,

Yearning to dissolve the illusion of separateness,

To merge with the endless current of Life.

 

Grant me the wisdom to surrender,

To let go of my ego’s grip,

That I may flow effortlessly

In the river of Your divine will.

 

In this sacred moment, I release all striving,

All desires born from the false self,

And embrace the purity of Your essence,

Where true peace and harmony reside.

 

Illuminate my heart with the light of humility,

That I may see beyond the veil of the ego,

To the interconnectedness of all beings,

To the oneness that is Your eternal truth.

 

Guide my steps on the Path of Non-Action,

Where virtue blooms in silence,

And the soul's deepest longing

Finds its home in Your boundless love.

 

O Universal Spirit, I seek no personal gain,

No achievements of a transient world,

But only the sacred union with You,

Where I am nothing, and yet, everything.

 

In the stillness of Your presence,

Let me dissolve into the infinite,

To be led by Your gentle hand,

Forever embraced by Your divine grace.

 

Μυστική προσευχή για το μονοπάτι του Συμπαντικού

 

Ω άπειρη πηγή, αόρατη και ανεξιχνίαστη,

Υποκλίνομαι μπροστά στην απέραντη παρουσία Σου,

Λαχταρώντας να διαλύσω την ψευδαίσθηση του χωρισμού,

Να συγχωνευθώ με το ατελείωτο ρεύμα της Ζωής.

 

Δώσε μου τη σοφία να παραδοθώ,

Για να αφήσω την λαβή του εγώ μου,

Για να ρέω αβίαστα

Στο ποτάμι του θείου σου θελήματος.

 

Σε αυτή την ιερή στιγμή, απελευθερώνω κάθε προσπάθεια,

Όλες τις επιθυμίες που γεννήθηκαν από τον ψεύτικο εαυτό,

Και αγκαλιάζω την αγνότητα της ουσίας Σου,

Εκεί που βρίσκεται η αληθινή ειρήνη και αρμονία.

 

Φώτισε την καρδιά μου με το φως της ταπεινοφροσύνης,

Για να δω πέρα από το πέπλο του εγώ,

Στη διασύνδεση όλων των όντων,

Στην ενότητα που είναι η αιώνια αλήθεια Σου.

 

Οδήγησε τα βήματά μου στο μονοπάτι της μη δράσης,

Εκεί που η αρετή ανθίζει στη σιωπή,

Και η πιο βαθιά λαχτάρα της ψυχής

Βρίσκει το σπίτι της στην απεριόριστη αγάπη Σου.

 

Ω Συμπαντικό Πνεύμα, δεν επιδιώκω κανένα προσωπικό όφελος,

Κανένα επίτευγμα ενός παροδικού κόσμου,

Αλλά μόνο την ιερή ένωση με Σένα,

Εκεί που δεν είμαι τίποτα, και όμως, τα πάντα.

 

Στην ησυχία της παρουσίας Σου,

Άσε με να διαλυθώ στο άπειρο,

Να με οδηγεί το απαλό σου χέρι,

Για πάντα αγκαλιασμένος από τη θεία χάρη Σου.

 

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Glimpses of the Absolute

 

Within each of us lies the potential to transcend the limitations of ordinary mind and experience a deeper reality - what some traditions call the Absolute, the Ground of Being, or God. While this state of unity or peak experience has often been considered the domain solely of mystics and saints, the truth is that the capacity dwells dormant in every human soul. It is our essential nature, awaiting discovery through disciplined inner work.

All genuine spiritual paths point to the same destination, though using different languages and methods. At their core, they offer a process of liberation from identification with separate ego and gradual awakening to our intrinsic divine essence. This involves cultivating noble virtues, practicing presence of mind through meditation, and cultivating wisdom through inquiry into the nature of reality and self.

Over time, such disciplines help peel away layers of superficial conditioning to reveal our true blissful and peaceful self - one with the fundamental pure consciousness that underlies all forms. In that state of inward stillness and clarity, the usual boundaries between subject and object fall away. One perceives directly that all is contained within the one infinite life and knows directly one's identity with the eternal. Though ineffable, this realization brings transcendent peace, love, creativity and compassion.

While glimpses of the Absolute may come through grace to anyone at any time, consistent experience depends on committed effort. The seeker must firmly resolve to strip away all that obscures their true nature like the proverbial onion, layer by layer. With patient practice of presence and purification, the trappings of small self dissolve, and one may abide as peaceful, blissful awareness itself - fully awake in every moment to life's deepest meaning. Then daily living becomes worship, and ordinary reality is transfigured by love, joy, wisdom and service. This is the fruit of following the perennial path with heart and will - a taste of our shared spiritual potential.

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Quotes

Constantinos’s quotes


"A "Soul" that out of ignorance keeps making mistakes is like a wounded bird with helpless wings that cannot fly high in the sky."— Constantinos Prokopiou

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

...

CHAPTER III

 

QUIETING PEOPLE

Neglecting to praise the worthy deters people from emulating them; just as not prizing rare treasures deters a man from becoming a thief; or ignoring the things which awaken desire keeps the heart at rest.

Therefore, the wise ruler does not suggest unnecessary things, but seeks to satisfy the minds of his people. He seeks to allay appetites but strengthen bones. He ever tries by keeping people in ignorance to keep them satisfied and those who have knowledge he restrains from evil. If he, himself, practices restraint then everything is in quietness.

...

Quieting People

Neglecting to praise the worthy:

Neglecting to acknowledge and praise individuals who deserve recognition can discourage others from emulating their positive qualities.

Just as not appreciating rare treasures deters a person from engaging in theft, the absence of recognition can hinder the development of desirable traits in others.

By recognizing and praising the worthy, we can inspire others to strive for excellence.

Ignoring the things that awaken desire:

When we disregard or ignore the things that evoke desire, we can maintain a sense of contentment and inner peace.

By not constantly seeking external stimuli, we can cultivate a state of tranquility within ourselves.

This approach allows us to find satisfaction in what we already have, rather than constantly chasing after new desires.

The wise ruler's approach:

A wise ruler understands the importance of satisfying the minds of the people they govern.

They do not unnecessarily burden their subjects with irrelevant information or demands.

Instead, they focus on allaying appetites and reinforcing the overall well-being of their people.

The wise ruler restrains those with knowledge from engaging in harmful actions and promotes a culture of restraint and tranquility.

The benefits of quietness:

When individuals practice restraint and embrace a state of quietness, harmony and peace prevail.

By prioritizing calmness and self-control, both on an individual and societal level, conflicts can be minimized.

The pursuit of quietness allows for personal growth, contentment, and a more harmonious coexistence.

Embracing quietness

Quieting people involves recognizing the worthy, ignoring unnecessary desires, and fostering a state of tranquility. The wise ruler seeks to satisfy the minds of their people by allaying appetites and promoting restraint. By embracing quietness, individuals can experience personal growth and contribute to a more peaceful society. Remember to appreciate the positive qualities in others, find contentment in the present, and practice self-restraint for a harmonious existence.

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Meditation Music

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Copyright

Copyright © Esoterism Academy 2010-2024. All Rights Reserved .

Intellectual property rights


The entire content of our website, including, but not limited to, texts, news, graphics, photographs, diagrams, illustrations, services provided and generally any kind of files, is subject to intellectual property (copyright) and is governed by the national and international provisions on Intellectual Property, with the exception of the expressly recognized rights of third parties.
Therefore, it is expressly prohibited to reproduce, republish, copy, store, sell, transmit, distribute, publish, perform, "download", translate, modify in any way, in part or in summary, without the express prior written consent of the Foundation. It is known that in case the Foundation consents, the applicant is obliged to explicitly refer via links (hyperlinks) to the relevant content of the Foundation's website. This obligation of the applicant exists even if it is not explicitly stated in the written consent of the Foundation.
Exceptionally, it is permitted to individually store and copy parts of the content on a simple personal computer for strictly personal use (private study or research, educational purposes), without the intention of commercial or other exploitation and always under the condition of indicating the source of its origin, without this in any way implies a grant of intellectual property rights.
It is also permitted to republish material for purposes of promoting the events and activities of the Foundation, provided that the source is mentioned and that no intellectual property rights are infringed, no trademarks are modified, altered or deleted.
Everything else that is included on the electronic pages of our website and constitutes registered trademarks and intellectual property products of third parties is their own sphere of responsibility and has nothing to do with the website of the Foundation.

Δικαιώματα πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας

Το σύνολο του περιεχομένου του Δικτυακού μας τόπου, συμπεριλαμβανομένων, ενδεικτικά αλλά όχι περιοριστικά, των κειμένων, ειδήσεων, γραφικών, φωτογραφιών, σχεδιαγραμμάτων, απεικονίσεων, παρεχόμενων υπηρεσιών και γενικά κάθε είδους αρχείων, αποτελεί αντικείμενο πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας (copyright) και διέπεται από τις εθνικές και διεθνείς διατάξεις περί Πνευματικής Ιδιοκτησίας, με εξαίρεση τα ρητώς αναγνωρισμένα δικαιώματα τρίτων.

Συνεπώς, απαγορεύεται ρητά η αναπαραγωγή, αναδημοσίευση, αντιγραφή, αποθήκευση, πώληση, μετάδοση, διανομή, έκδοση, εκτέλεση, «λήψη» (download), μετάφραση, τροποποίηση με οποιονδήποτε τρόπο, τμηματικά η περιληπτικά χωρίς τη ρητή προηγούμενη έγγραφη συναίνεση του Ιδρύματος. Γίνεται γνωστό ότι σε περίπτωση κατά την οποία το Ίδρυμα συναινέσει, ο αιτών υποχρεούται για την ρητή παραπομπή μέσω συνδέσμων (hyperlinks) στο σχετικό περιεχόμενο του Δικτυακού τόπου του Ιδρύματος. Η υποχρέωση αυτή του αιτούντος υφίσταται ακόμα και αν δεν αναγραφεί ρητά στην έγγραφη συναίνεση του Ιδρύματος.

Κατ’ εξαίρεση, επιτρέπεται η μεμονωμένη αποθήκευση και αντιγραφή τμημάτων του περιεχομένου σε απλό προσωπικό υπολογιστή για αυστηρά προσωπική χρήση (ιδιωτική μελέτη ή έρευνα, εκπαιδευτικούς σκοπούς), χωρίς πρόθεση εμπορικής ή άλλης εκμετάλλευσης και πάντα υπό την προϋπόθεση της αναγραφής της πηγής προέλευσής του, χωρίς αυτό να σημαίνει καθ’ οιονδήποτε τρόπο παραχώρηση δικαιωμάτων πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας.

Επίσης, επιτρέπεται η αναδημοσίευση υλικού για λόγους προβολής των γεγονότων και δραστηριοτήτων του Ιδρύματος, με την προϋπόθεση ότι θα αναφέρεται η πηγή και δεν θα θίγονται δικαιώματα πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας, δεν θα τροποποιούνται, αλλοιώνονται ή διαγράφονται εμπορικά σήματα.

Ό,τι άλλο περιλαμβάνεται στις ηλεκτρονικές σελίδες του Δικτυακού μας τόπου και αποτελεί κατοχυρωμένα σήματα και προϊόντα πνευματικής ιδιοκτησίας τρίτων ανάγεται στη δική τους σφαίρα ευθύνης και ουδόλως έχει να κάνει με τον Δικτυακό τόπο του Ιδρύματος.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~